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It is much more than this. Interest rates are critically important prices in an economy, and they are to a significant extent controlled by the central bank, reflecting monetary policy.
This textbook will provide a greater understanding of technology-based entrepreneurship in the emerging knowledge economy. One of the great mysteries and elegant features of the financial system in general, and of the banking sector in particular, is the creation of new money.
Finance sector decisions have a decisive impact on well-being. The authors present approaches to monetary management in both closed and open economies that highlight major policy dilemmas. This book is aimed at readers who - are not economists but want to understand fundamental economic concepts in an easy and straight-forward way.
This book covers the changes that have enveloped the Indian business landscape in the last two decades. By following the same structure as the companion text, this book of exercises and solutions tests your knowledge of Strategic Financial Management.
This book attempts to present a theoretical and practical analysis in microeconomics, commencing with consumer preferences and production and cost theory. This is a book of papers which endeavour to dispel the many misleading notions in respect of money creation. Partial differential equations form tools for modelling, predicting and understanding our world. This book consists of ten articles, which contribute to a coherent approach making actual policies understandable as path dependent European narratives.
After reading the theory book about Microeconomics it is time to test your knowledge to make sure that you are well prepared for your exam. This free book critically evaluates working capital management and the strategic marketing function of credit terms within a theoretical context of wealth maximisation and empirical research.
The book provides international readers with abundant colorful stories regarding to recent developments of China in three basic aspects of industrialization, urbanization and globalization. This book critically reviews literature on business cycles and financial crises.
This book of Exercises reinforces theoretical applications of stock market analyses as a guide to Corporate Valuation and Takeover and other texts in the bookboon series by Robert Alan Hill. The Neoclassical Growth Model and Ricardian Equivalence presents two fundamental theories in microeconomics to readers who are familiar with essential economic theories and debates. Troubles with the break-even analysis?
One way to reduce agency costs is for the principal to monitor what the agent does to make sure it is what he has been hired to do. But this can be costly, too.
It may be impossible to define the agent's job in a way that can be monitored effectively. For instance, it is hard to know whether a manager who has expanded a firm through an acquisition that reduced its share price was pursuing his own empire-building interests or, say, was trying to maximise shareholder value but was unlucky. Another way to lower agency costs, especially when monitoring is too expensive or too difficult, is to make the interests of the agent more like those of the principal.
For instance, an increasingly common solution to the agency costs arising from the separation of ownership and management of public companies is to pay managers partly with shares and share options in the company. This gives the managers a powerful incentive to act in the interests of the owners by maximising shareholder value.
But even this is not a perfect solution. Some managers with lots of share options have engaged in accounting fraud in order to increase the value of those options long enough for them to cash some of them in, but to the detriment of their firm and its other shareholders.
See, for example, Enron. Broadly speaking, governments have tried two methods of subsidising agriculture. The first, used in the United States during the s and in the UK before it joined the European Union, is to top up farmers' incomes if they fall below a level deemed acceptable.
Farmers may be required to set aside some of their land in return for this support. The second is to guarantee a minimum level of farm prices by downloading up surplus supply and storing or destroying it if prices would otherwise fall below the guaranteed levels. To keep down the direct cost of this subsidy the EU used trade barriers, including import levies, to minimise competition to EU farmers from produce available more cheaply on world agriculture markets.
Recent American farm-support policy has combined income top-ups and some guaranteed prices. As most governments have become more committed to international trade, such agricultural policies have come under increasing attack, although the free trade rhetoric has often run far ahead of genuine reform.
Finding a way to end agricultural support had become by far the biggest remaining challenge for those trying to negotiate global free trade. Agriculture Farming around the world continues to become more productive while generally accounting for a smaller share of employment and national income , although in some poor countries it remains the sector on which the country and its people depend.
The total value of international trade in agriculture has risen steadily. But the global agriculture market remains severely distorted by trade barriers and government subsidy, such as the european union 's Common agricultural policy. Aid See international aid. Altruism It is often alleged that altruism is inconsistent with economic rationality, which assumes that people behave selfishly. Certainly, much economic analysis is concerned with how individuals behave, and homo economicus economic man is usually assumed to act in his or her self-interest.
However, self-interest does not necessarily mean selfish. Some economic models in the field of behavioural economics assume that self-interested individuals behave altruistically because they get some benefit, or utility , from doing so.
For instance, it may make them feel better about themselves, or be a useful insurance policy against social unrest, say. Some economic models go further and relax the traditional assumption of fully rational behaviour by simply assuming that people sometimes behave altruistically, even if this may be against their self-interest.
Either way, there is much economic literature about charity, international aid , public spending and redistributive taxation.
Amortisation The running down or payment of a loan by instalments. An example is a repayment mortgage on a house, which is amortised by making monthly payments that over a pre-agreed period of time cover the value of the loan plus interest.
With loans that are not amortised, the borrower pays only interest during the period of the loan and then repays the sum borrowed in full.
A Dynamic Dual Economy Approach
Animal spirits The colourful name that keynes gave to one of the essential ingredients of economic prosperity: confidence.
According to Keynes, animal spirits are a particular sort of confidence, "naive optimism". He meant this in the sense that, for entrepreneurs in particular, "the thought of ultimate loss which often overtakes pioneers, as experience undoubtedly tells us and them, is put aside as a healthy man puts aside the expectation of death".
Where these animal spirits come from is something of a mystery. Certainly, attempts by politicians and others to talk up confidence by making optimistic noises about economic prospects have rarely done much good. Antitrust government policy for dealing with monopoly.
Antitrust laws aim to stop abuses of market power by big companies and, sometimes, to prevent corporate mergers and acquisitions that would create or strengthen a monopolist.
Principles of Agricultural Economics PDF Book
There have been big differences in antitrust policies both among countries and within the same country over time. This has reflected different ideas about what constitutes a monopoly and, where there is one, what sorts of behaviour are abusive.
This prohibited contracts or conspiracies to restrain trade or, in the words of a later act, to monopolise commerce. In the early 20th century this law was used to reduce the economic power wielded by so-called "robber barons", such as JP Morgan and John D.
Rockefeller, who dominated much of American industry through huge trusts that controlled companies' voting shares. Du Pont chemicals, the railroad companies and Rockefeller's Standard Oil, among others, were broken up. In the s a more laissez-faire approach was adopted, underpinned by economic theories from the chicago school.
These theories said that the only justification for antitrust intervention should be that a lack of competition harmed consumers, and not that a firm had become, in some ill-defined sense, too big. Some monopolistic activities previously targeted by antitrust authorities, such as predatory pricing and exclusive marketing agreements, were much less harmful to consumers than had been thought in the past.
They also criticised the traditional method of identifying a monopoly, which was based on looking at what percentage of a market was served by the biggest firm or firms, using a measure known as the herfindahl-hirschman index. Instead, they argued that even a market dominated by one firm need not be a matter of antitrust concern, provided it was a contestable market.
In the s American antitrust policy became somewhat more interventionist.
A high-profile lawsuit was launched against Microsoft in The Dynamics of California's Biotechnology Industry. In the years following the crisis, most of the countries involved have introduced reforms designed to increase transparency and improve the health of the banking system, although some such as South Korea went much further than others such as Indonesia.
See, for example, Enron. Climate, environment, catastrophes. The dynamic intersection between demand and supply is presented in a simple simulation model.
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